World Council of Churches
The WCC used to have a separate department for Interreligious Dialogue which spear-headed the Council’s work in this area. Now the Council focusses its work in three program areas: Unity, Mission, and Ecumenical Relations, Public Witness and Diakonia, and Ecumenical Formation, all of which share a responsibility for the various works of the WCC, including inter-religious dialogue and cooperation. The website provides the following resources:
- Strengthening inter-religious trust and respect: http://www.oikoumene.org/en/what-we-do/inter-religious-trust-and-respect
- Christian self-understanding amid many religions http://www.oikoumene.org/en/what-we-do/christian-self-understanding
- E-zine “Current Dialogue” contains a wealth of articles on interreligious dialogue, news about interreligious events and related WCC consultation reports.
- Documents on Interreligious dialogue and cooperation http://www.oikoumene.org/en/resources/documents/wcc-programmes/interreligious-dialogue-and-cooperation
WCC Teaching Documents
1979, WCC, Guidelines
Guidelines on Dialogue with People of Living Faiths and Ideologies
A major landmark in the area of inter-religious dialogue came in 1977 at a meeting in Chiang Mai, Thailand where a group of Christians representing many different ecclesiastical traditions drew up Guidelines on Dialogue with People of Living Faiths and Ideologies. These guidelines serve as the basis of interreligious dialogue sponsored by the WCC and many churches around the world. These guidelines were first published in 1979.
PDF is available here: WCC 1979 Guidelines on Dialogue with People of Living Faiths and Ideologies
1990, Baar Statement: Theological Perspectives on Plurality
Baar Statement: Theological Perspectives on Plurality
15 January 1990
The Dialogue sub-unit of the WCC undertook a four-year study programme on ‘My Neighbour’s Faith and Mine – Theological Discoveries through Interfaith Dialogue’. As the apex of this study, delegates from the Orthodox, Protestant and Roman Catholic traditions were brought together to reflect on some of these issues. A week of intense discussions centred on questions such as the significance of religious plurality, christology, and the issues in understanding the activity of the Spirit in the world. The document which follows is a statement made by the members of this consultation, which was held in Baar, near Zurich, Switzerland in January 1990. It informed the discussion of these issues at the 7th WCC assembly in Canberra in February 1991.
PDF file: WCC 1990 Baar Statement: Theological Perspectives on Plurality
Baar Statement: Theological Perspectives on Plurality
The Dialogue sub-unit of the WCC undertook a four-year study programme on ‘My Neighbour’s Faith and Mine – Theological Discoveries through Interfaith Dialogue‘. As the apex of this study, delegates from the Orthodox, Protestant and Roman Catholic traditions were brought together to reflect on some of these issues. A week of intense discussions centred on questions such as the significance of religious plurality, christology, and the issues in understanding the activity of the Spirit in the world. The document which follows is a statement made by the members of this consultation, which was held in Baar, near Zurich, Switzerland in January 1990. It informed the discussion of these issues at the 7th WCC assembly in Canberra in February 1991.
Dialogue with people of living faiths has been part of the Work of the WCC since 1971 when the Central Committee meeting in Addis Ababa affirmed that dialogue “is to be understood as the common adventure of the churches”.
Since the Nairobi WCC Assembly in 1975 this common adventure has been seen primarily as “dialogue in community”. This has meant entering into dialogue with our neighbours of other faiths in the communities we as Christians share with them, exploring such issues as peace, justice, and humanity’s relation to nature. We have found repeatedly that Christians may not behave as if we were the only people of faith as we face common problems of an interdependent world. It is evident the various religious traditions of the world have much to contribute in wisdom and inspiration towards solving these problems.
In this ecumenical consultation we have reaffirmed the importance of Dialogue in Community as articulated in the Guidelines on Dialogues (1979). We also recall the affirmation of the Central Committee in adopting these guidelines: “To enter into dialogue requires an opening of the mind and heart to others. It is an undertaking which requires risk as well as a deep sense of vocation” (Central Committee, Kingston, Jamaica, 1979).
We turned our attention with particular urgency to the theological questions that have emerged from the practice of dialogue. As the Guidelines suggested: “Christians engaged in faithful ‘dialogue in community’ with people of other faiths….cannot avoid asking themselves penetrating questions about the place of these people in the activity of God in history. They ask these questions not in theory, but in terms of what God may be doing in the lives of hundreds of millions of men and women who live in and seek community together with Christians, but along different ways” (Guidelines, p.11).
Dialogue with people of other living faiths leads us to ask what is the relation of the diversity of religious traditions to the mystery of the one Triune God? It is clear to us that interfaith dialogue has implications not only for our human relations in community with people of other faiths, but for our Christian theology as well.
From the beginning Christians have encountered people of other faiths, and from time to time theologians have grappled with the significance of religious plurality. The modern ecumenical movement from its earliest beginnings (Edinburgh 1910) has made many attempts to understand the relation of the Christian message to the world of many faiths.
Today our greater awareness and appreciation of religious plurality leads us to move in this “common adventure” toward a more adequate theology of religions. There is a widely felt need for such a theology, for without it Christians remain ill-equipped to understand the profound religious experiences which they witness in the lives of people of other faiths or to articulate their own experience in a way that will be understood by people of other faiths.
II. A Theological Understanding of Religious Plurality
Our theological understanding of religious plurality begins with our faith in the one God who created all things, the living God, present and active in all creation from the beginning. The Bible testifies to God as God of all nations and peoples, whose love and compassion includes all humankind. We see in the Covenant with Noah a covenant with all creation. We see His wisdom and justice extending to the ends of the earth as He guides the nations through their traditions of wisdom and understanding. God’s glory penetrates the whole of creation.
People have at all times and in all places responded to the presence and activity of God among them, and have given their witness to their encounters with the Living God. In this testimony they speak both of seeking and of having found salvation, or wholeness, or enlightenment, or divine guidance, or rest, or liberation.
We therefore take this witness with the utmost seriousness and acknowledge that among all the nations and peoples there has always been the saving presence of God. Though as Christians our testimony is always to the salvation we have experienced through Christ, we at the same time “cannot set limits to the saving power of God” (CWME, San Antonio 1989).
We see the plurality of religious traditions as both the result of the manifold ways in which God has related to peoples and nations as well as a manifestation of the richness and diversity of humankind. We affirm that God has been present in their seeking and finding, that where there is truth and wisdom in their teachings, and love and holiness in their living, this like any wisdom, insight, knowledge, understanding, love and holiness that is found among us is the gift of the Holy Spirit. We also affirm that God is with them as they struggle, along with us, for justice and liberation.
This conviction that God as creator of all is present and active in the plurality of religions makes it inconceivable to us that God’s saving activity could be confined to any one continent, cultural type, or groups of peoples. A refusal to take seriously the many and diverse religious testimonies to be found among the nations and peoples of the whole world amounts to disowning the biblical testimony to God as creator of all things and father of humankind. “The Spirit of God is at work in ways that pass human understanding and in places that to us are least expected. In entering into dialogue with others, therefore, Christians seek to discern the unsearchable riches of Christ and the way God deals with humanity” (CWME Statement, Mission and Evangelism).
It is our Christian faith in God which challenges us to take seriously the whole realm of religious plurality. We see this not so much as an obstacle to be overcome, but rather as an opportunity for deepening our encounter with God and with our neighbours as we await the fulfilment when “God will be all in all” (1 Cor. 15-18). Seeking to develop new and greater understandings of “the wisdom, love and power which God has given to men (and women) of other faiths” (New Delhi Report, 1961), we must affirm our “openness to the possibility that the God we know in Jesus Christ may encounter us also in the lives of our neighbours of other faiths” (CWME Report, San Antonio 1989, para. 29). The one God and father of our Lord Jesus Christ has not left Himself without witness, anywhere (Acts 14.17).
Ambiguity in the Religious Traditions
Any affirmation of the positive qualities of wisdom, love, compassion, and spiritual insight in the world’s religious traditions must also speak with honesty and with sadness of the human wickedness and folly that is also present in all religious communities. We must recognize the ways in which religion has functioned too often to support systems of oppression and exclusion. Any adequate theology of religions must deal with human wickedness and sin, with disobedience to spiritual insight and failure to live in accordance with the highest ideals. Therefore we are continually challenged by the Spirit to discern the wisdom and purposes of God.
III. Christology And Religious Plurality
Because we have seen and experienced goodness, truth and holiness among followers of other paths and ways than that of Jesus Christ, we are forced to confront with total seriousness the question raised in the Guidelines on Dialogue (1979) concerning the universal creative and redemptive activity of God towards all humankind and the particular redemptive activity of God in the history of Israel and in the person and work of Jesus Christ (para. 23). We find ourselves recognizing a need to move beyond a theology which confines salvation to the explicit personal commitment to Jesus Christ.
We affirm that in Jesus Christ, the incarnate Word, the entire human family has been united to God in an irrevocable bond and covenant. The saving presence of God’s activity in all creation and human history comes to its focal point in the event of Christ.
In Jesus’s words and action, in His proclamation, in His ministry of healing and service, God was establishing His reign on earth, a sovereign rule whose presence and power cannot be limited to any one community or culture. The attitudes of Jesus as He reached out to those beyond the house of Israel testify to this universal reign. He spoke with the woman of Samaria, affirming all who would worship God in Spirit and truth (Jn. 4.7-24). He marvelled at the faith of a centurion, acknowledging that He had not found such faith in all Israel (Matt. 8.5-11). For the sake of a Syro-Phoenician woman, and in response to her faith, He performed a miracle of healing (Matt. 15.21-28).
But while it appears that the saving power of the reign of God made present in Jesus during His earthly ministry was in some sense limited (cf. Matt. 10.23), through the event of His death and resurrection, the paschal mystery itself, these limits were transcended. The cross and the resurrection disclose for us the universal dimension of the saving mystery of God.
This saving mystery is mediated and expressed in many and various ways as God’s plan unfolds toward its fulfillment. It may be available to those outside the fold of Christ (Jn. 10.16) in ways we cannot understand, as they live faithful and truthful lives in their concrete circumstances and in the framework of the religious traditions which guide and inspire them. The Christ event is for us the clearest expression of the salvific will of God in all human history. (I Tim. 2.4)
IV. The Holy Spirit And Religious Plurality
We have been especially concerned in this Consultation with the person and work of the Holy Spirit, who moved and still moves over the face of the earth to create, nurture, challenge, renew and sustain. We have learned again to see the activity of the Spirit as beyond our definitions, descriptions and limitations, as “the wind blows where it wills” (Jn. 3.8). We have marvelled at the “economy” of the Spirit in all the world, and are full of hope and expectancy. We see the freedom of the Spirit moving in ways which we cannot predict, we see the nurturing power of the Spirit bringing order out of chaos and renewing the face of the earth, and the ‘energies’ of the Spirit working within and inspiring human beings in their universal longing for and seeking after truth, peace and justice. Everything which belongs to ‘love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, self-control’ is properly to be recognized and acknowledged as the fruit of the activity of the Holy Spirit. (Gal. 5.22-23, cf. Rom. 14.17).
We are clear, therefore, that a positive answer must be given to the question raised in the Guidelines on Dialogue (1979) “is it right and helpful to understand the work of God outside the Church in terms of the Holy Spirit” (para. 23). We affirm unequivocally that God the Holy Spirit has been at work in the life and traditions of peoples of living faiths.
Further we affirm that it is within the realm of the Spirit that we may be able to interpret the truth and goodness of other religions and distinguish the “things that differ”, so that our “love may abound more and more, with knowledge and all discernment” (Phil. 1.9-10).
We also affirm that the Holy Spirit, the Interpreter of Christ and of our own Scriptures (Jn. 14.26) will lead us to understand afresh the deposit of the faith already given to us, and into fresh and unexpected discovery of new wisdom and insight, as we learn more from our neighbours of other faiths.
V. Interreligious Dialogue: A Theological Perspective
Our recognition of the mystery of salvation in men and women of other religious traditions shapes the concrete attitudes with which we Christians must approach them in interreligious dialogue.
We need to respect their religious convictions, different as these may be from our own, and to admire the things which God has accomplished and continues to accomplish in them through the Spirit. Interreligious dialogue is therefore a “two-way street”. Christians must enter into it in a spirit of openness, prepared to receive from others, while on their part, they give witness of their own faith. Authentic dialogue opens both partners to a deeper conversion to the God who speaks to each through the other. Through the witness of others, we Christians can truly discover facets of the divine mystery which we have not yet seen or responded to. The practice of dialogue will then result in the deepening of our own life of faith. We believe that walking together with people of other living faiths will bring us to a fuller understanding and experience of truth.
We feel called to allow the practice of interreligious dialogue to transform the way in which we do theology. We need to move toward a dialogical theology in which the praxis of dialogue together with that of human liberation, will constitute a true locus theologicus, i.e. both a source of and basis for theological work. The challenge of religious plurality and the praxis of dialogue are part of the context in which we must search for fresh understandings, new questions, and better expressions of our Christian faith and commitment.
2002, WCC, Guidelines
Guidelines for Dialogue and Relations with People of Other Religions
This document proposes guidelines and considerations on interreligious relations and dialogue for study and reflection. It was drafted in response to the need for a revision of the 1979 WCC “Guidelines”. This revision takes stock of what has been achieved or attempted during the last twenty-three years and addresses some of the present concerns.
A consultation was held in Bose, Italy from 4-8 October to begin the work of revising this document. The present version was drafted by the Advisory Group on Interreligious Relations and Dialogue meeting in Sweden, 8-12 May, 2002.
PDF File: WCC 2002 Ecumenical Considerations for Dialogue and Relations with People of Other Religions
2004, WCC, Ecumenical Considerations
Ecumenical considerations for dialogue and relations with people of other religions: Taking stock of 30 years of dialogue and revisiting the 1979 Guidelines
Since the 1979 guidelines, the ecumenical movement has taken significant steps toward facilitating interreligious relations and dialogue, but expectations for the fruits of our efforts have also risen. In recent years, member churches have requested guidelines on interreligious relations and dialogue that address today’s context. More than ever, we sense a growing need not just for dialogue with people of other faiths but for genuine relationships with them. Increased awareness of religious plurality, the potential role of religion in conflict, and the growing place of religion in public life present urgent challenges that require greater understanding and cooperation among people of diverse faiths.
PDF File: WCC 2004 Ecumenical Considerations for Dialogue and Relations with People of Other Religions
Español: Consideraciones ecuménicas sobre el diálogo y las relaciones con creyentes de otras religions
2004, WCC, Religious Plurality and Christian Self-Understanding
Religious Plurality and Christian Self-Understanding
This unofficial text is the result of a unique collaboration among WCC Interreligious Relations, Mission and Evangelism, and Faith and Order staff, and their respective commissions or advisory bodies. It seeks a new approach to the difficult and controversial issues related to Christian self-understanding in a religiously plural world. The text, which is provisional as it has not been submitted to or adopted by any official WCC body, was presented in January 2014 as a document for discussion and debate. Written after several consultations in Geneva between 2003 and 2004, this document was first published in Current Dialogue N° 45, July 2005.
The pdf is available for download here: http://www.oikoumene.org/en/resources/documents/commissions/faith-and-order/ix-other-study-processes/religious-plurality-and-christian-self-understanding
2012, WCC, Christian Self-Understanding in the Context of Islam
Christian Self-Understanding in the Context of Islam
26 July 2012
Vol. 52 of Current Dialogue focuses on “Christian Self-understanding in the Context of Islam” from diverse theological and academic perspectives. The journal features various articles offering analysis based on the outcomes of intra-Christian consultations held over the last few years.
Edited by Clare Amos, the World Council of Churches programme executive for inter-religious dialogue and cooperation, the July 2012 special issue is now online.
Current Dialogue contains some of the papers presented at a consultation on “Christian Self-understanding in Relation to Islam”. The consultation was held from 18 to 20 October 2008 in Geneva, Switzerland. The issue also contains a report that sums up discussions and recommendations put forward during the consultation.
This issue features an introduction by Rima Barsoum, along with presentations by other contributors including Catholicos Aram I of the Armenian Apostolic Church, Rev. Dr Emmanuel Clapsis, Rev. Simone Sinn, Daniel A. Madigan, Dr Oddbjorn Leirvik, Fr. Georges Massouh and Prof. Charles Amjad-Ali.
Some of the themes explored in Current Dialogue are Lutheran theology and practice in relation to Islam, Christian theologizing in relation to Islam, relational theology in dialogue with Islam, Christian-Muslim relations: an Arab Christian perspective; and the historical and political context of Christian-Muslim relations in Pakistan.
Link to download PDF: http://www.oikoumene.org/en/what-we-do/current-dialogue-magazine/dialogue-52
2015, WCC, Called to Dialogue
Dual and Duelling Dialogues? Guidelines Offer Aid
19 November 2015
How does the on-going quest for Christian unity relate to the search for inter-religious understanding? How can these two distinct forms of dialogue be related and practiced?
While intra-Christian and inter-religious encounters pose existential and spiritual challenges for Christians, they also pose nettling practical dilemmas for professionals charged with pursuing both inter-church and interfaith forms of dialogue.
A new resource from the World Council of Churches gleans the collective wisdom of ecumenical and inter-religious experts from church and academic settings around the world to address such questions.
Responding to widespread confusion of terminology and the need of church professionals in one arena also to tackle the other, Called to Dialogue: Inter-religious and Intra-Christian Dialogue in Ecumenical Conversation probes and clarifies the terminological and substantive challenges.
Even as our intra-Christian dialogue continues, inter-religious encounter has become more widespread and visible,” said Clare Amos, WCC programme executive for inter-religious dialogue and cooperation. “And the marked pluralism of our globalized situation, along with such geopolitical shifts as migration, persecution and inter-religious violence, and religious extremism, has added urgency and poignancy to our search for understanding.
The considerations were formulated by a consulting group of 16 ecclesiastical and academic consultants who met in 2014 and 2015, and their results were later refined. The brief resource is designed to help churches, church leaders and ecumenical officers make sense of these developments programmatically and as an aid in the design of their work.
The fruit of a collaboration between two WCC programmes — Faith and Order, and Inter-religious Dialogue and Cooperation — the resource includes reflections on two key New Testament texts and then offers, in that light, some fundamental theological bases for principles and goals of each kind of dialogue. It concludes with extensive discussion of practical issues and best practices for both forms of dialogue.
“The new languages and methods here affirm and promote both inter-religious and intra-Christian relations,” Amos said, “holding the promise of diffusing tensions, addressing violence, fostering understanding and reconciliation and deepening the religious commitment and spirituality of those involved.”
Link to the PDF: Called to Dialogue: Inter-religious and Intra-Christian Dialogue in Ecumenical Conversation
Link to the webpage for WCC’s new resource: Called to Dialogue
Link to the webpage of WCC’s: Commission on Faith and Order
Link to the webpage of WCC’s: Strengthening inter-religious trust and respect
WCC Website: Strengthening Interreligious Trust and Respect
Strengthening Interreligious Trust and Respect
This project attempts to strengthen inter-religious trust and respect through bilateral and multilateral dialogues, regional and cross-cultural encounters on topics like religion and violence, perceptions of “the other”, and the search for identity in pluralistic societies.
WCC Publication: Current Dialogue Magazine
Current Dialogue offers a platform for debate to those within the ecumenical movement who want to build bridges across religious divides and to their partners of different faiths.
The journal contains articles on inter-religious dialogue, news about inter-religious events and related WCC consultation reports. Sing up to receive free issues by e-mail.